I: Sea urchin, Heart urchin, Sea biscuit, Sea star, Feather 

star, Brittle Sea star (Phylum Echinodermata)

          These animals are “Echinoderm”, which means spiny skin. They are found at every ocean depth, from the intertidal zone to the deep sea. At least 13 species of Echinoderms are found in Ao Tungkhen.

Sea urchin (Class Echinoidea)

         Sea urchins are usually covered with lots of long, sharp spines  that deter most predators. The spines also tend to break off inside their victim's flesh. Some sea      urchins have venomous spines that can inflict serious pain.

I1 Long spined sea urchin

                                    I1: Long-spined sea urchin

                            Scientific name: Diadema setosum


I2 Sea urchin

                                            I2: Sea urchin

                              Scientific name: Salmacis visgulata


Heart urchin  (Family Loveniidae)

     They are related to sea urchins and sand dollars.  These burrowing animals are seldom seen alive. Their strange skeletons are sometimes seen though. Heart urchins are preyed upon by Helmet snails .

I3 Heart urchin

I3: Heart urchin

                                                                                              Scientific name: Lovenia elongate


Sea biscuits (Family  Laganidae)

      Sea biscuits  are related to sea stars and have five-part symmetry. Living sea biscuits have tiny moving spines that tickle when you hold them. 

I4 Sea biscuits

                                   I4: Sea biscuits

                     Scientific name: Echinodiscus sp.


Starfish or sea stars (Class Stelleroida )

       They are among the most familiar of marine animals and possess a number of widely known traits, such as regeneration and feeding on mussels. Starfish possess a wide diversity of body forms and feeding methods. The extent that starfish can regenerate varies with individual species. The Knobby sea star use water to pump up their bodies. Don't remove them from water 

I5 Knobby sea star

                                  I5: Knobby sea star

                       Scientific name: Protoreaster canarium


Family Oreasteridae

I6 Sand sea star

                                          I6: Sand sea star

                           Scientific name: Astropecten bengalensis


Family Astropectinidae

Feather stars  (Class Crinoidea)

Crinoids are characterized by a mouth on the top surface that is surrounded by feeding arms. They have a U-shaped gut, and their anus is locate next to the mouth. Their long spiny arms are fragile and break easily. Don't disturb them.

I7 Feather stars

                                           I7: Feather stars

                                  Scientific name: Unidentified


Brittle sea star (Class Stellaroida )

     They are the largest group of echinoderms, fastest moving, most nervous-falling apart easily. Although numerous, they are shy and seldom seen as they  get hidden under coral rocks . Some live inside sponges and on other animals.

I8 Brittle sea star

                                                       I8: Brittle sea star

                                             Scientific nameOphiactic  sp.



Sea cucumbers (Class Holothuroidea)

    They are NOT vegetables or worms.  Like sea stars, they have 5-part symmetry but lengthwise. Sea cucumbers are found on the sea floor worldwide. There are a number of holothurian species and genera, many of which are targeted for human consumption. Some varieties of sea cucumber are said to have excellent healing properties. There are pharmaceutical companies being built based on gamat.     Extracts are prepared and made into oil, cream, or cosmetics.


Family Holothuriidae

I9 Garlic bread sea cucumber

                            I9: Garlic bread sea cucumber

                  Scientific name: Holothuria scabra



I10 Remarkable sea cucumber

                          I10: Remarkable sea cucumber

                 Scientific name: Holothuria notabilis


Family Cucumriidae

I11 Pink warty sea cucumber

                    I11: Pink warty sea cucumber

                                        Scientific name: Cercodesma sp.


I12 Purple cucumarid sea cucumber

           I12: Purple cucumarid sea cucumber

                       Scientific name: Unidentified


Family Synaptidae

I13 wormfish sea cucumber

                       I13: Wormfish sea cucumber

                                     Scientific nameSynapta sp.